Last Tested: Feb 4, 2019
Indirectly yes, example in Looker Docs here.
The trick is to use "hide no's from visualization". This requires you to have your "filter condition" as a boolean table calc.
Note that this isn't actually filtering in the SQL clause, and that this will only work on result sets with 5000 rows or less. There is a feature request for allowing a result set filter based on table calcs.
This content is subject to limited support.